Thursday, March 12, 2020
Standard deviation Essays Standard deviation Essay Standard deviation Essay Essay Topic: A Streetcar Named Desire In this unit, students will examine and discuss the ways in which content, plot, setting, imagery, characterisation, style and theme reflect the historical and social context of the time when the text was composed. Students will also explore the ways characters in texts have individually different human experiences. In addition, students will be encouraged to reflect on their own perspectives in issues, ideas and experiences.Class texts will include Of Mice and Men, A Streetcar Named Desire, An Enemy of the People and a film study of Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. In this unit, students will examine and discuss the ways in which content, plot, setting, imagery, characterisation, style and theme reflect the historical and social context of the time when the text was composed. Students will also explore the ways characters in texts have individually different human experiences. In addition, students will be encouraged to reflect on their own perspectives in issues, ideas and experiences.C lass texts will include Of Mice and Men, A Streetcar Named Desire, An Enemy of the People and a film study of Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. Task 1: In-class essay Weighting: 25% Length 800-1000 words Date due: Week 6 August 27th amp; 28th Text: Of Mice and Men Conditions: Question given to students 1 week prior to the exam on August 20th. Essay will be written over 2 periods. Novel allowed. Assessment Criteria You will be assessed on the degree to which you demonstrate: Ã · an ability to respond critically to texts and logically justify viewpoint Ã · an ability to evaluate and synthesise material to make meaning Ã · imagination and originality competent and effective use of language for a range of purposes and audiences Ã · control of appropriate medium. Task 2: Oralon perspectives in poetry/short story and one text of your own choice Weighting:25% Time 8-10 minutes Due dates: Weeks 9-10 TOPIC: Ã¢â¬Å"You cant see the world from somebody elses point of view and not be changed. Ã¢ â¬ Lena Coakley By studying various texts it becomes evident that people can have different opinions on a range of issues.You are to select: * one poem/song * one short story and * another text of your own choosing that explores various perspectives on an issue, event or person. Present your analysis of these three texts in an oral presentation. In your presentation it is expected that you will include: * an explanation of your chosen topic (issue, event or person) * an examination of the relevance of CoakleyÃ¢â¬â¢s quotation * the perspectives offered by each of your chosen writers/composers * an analysis of the techniques utilised to present each perspective * your personal response to the issue and each ext. Possible Topics are: The Stolen Generation Rationale: 400 Ã¢â¬â 600 words Date due: Week 12- October 21st Text: Boy in the Striped Pyjamas TOPIC: Choose to do either 1or 2 1.Imagine you are writing a follow up article on two of the people whose stories are told in Bo y in the Striped Pyjamas. The article will explore each personÃ¢â¬â¢s views and perspectives as portrayed in the film and any influences on those views. Their stories will be published in Ã¢â¬Å"The Two of Us,Ã¢â¬ a regular feature in The Good Weekend magazine of The Sydney Morning Herald. The tone, language and presentation (layout, pictures and graphics) of the articles should be in keeping with Ã¢â¬Å"The Two of Us. Ã¢â¬ (minimum of 400 words per response) 2. Look closely at a particular incident from Boy in the Striped Pyjamas that is significant for two characters.Write about the incident from the viewpoint of each character. This is to be a first person narrative in the form of an internal monologue. It is essential that this is not just a retelling of the events. You must try to capture the voice of each character along with their emotional response to the events and how they feel about the possible consequences. (minimum of 400 words per response) Conditions: You mus t submit a 400-600 word rationale that explains the decisions you made in the creative process. This is a BSSS requirement. Assessment CriteriaYou will be assessed on the degree to which you demonstrate: Ã · an ability to respond critically to texts and logically justify viewpoint Ã · an ability to evaluate and synthesise material to make meaning Ã · competent and effective use of language for a range of purposes and audiences Ã · control of appropriate medium. Task 4: Common task Ã¢â¬â essay written under exam conditions Weighting: 25% Length 800-1000 words Date: Week 15 Conditions: A copy of the play will be allowed with tabs, but no markings can be present on the tabs or in the text. TOPIC: TBA Assessment CriteriaYou will be assessed on the degree to which you demonstrate: Ã · an ability to respond critically to texts and logically justify viewpoint Ã · an ability to evaluate and synthesise material to make meaning Ã · competent and effective use of language for a range of purposes and audiences Ã · control of appropriate medium. Assessment Policies and Procedures Unit assessment procedures are conducted in accordance with the policies of the ACT Board of Senior Secondary Studies. Information about the following policies can be accessed in the Daramalan College Senior College Guide to Courses or on the ACT BSSS website. ww. bsss. act. edu. au -plagiarism -cheating -late and non submission of assessment tasks -attendance -course requirements and prerequisites -appeals procedures Moderation and Meshing Procedures All English teachers engage in rigorous moderation procedures. This entails samples of student responses to all major tasks being assessed by two teachers to ensure the accurate and consistent awarding of grades and marks. Should agreement not be reached initially, the English Coordinator is notified and a third teacher assesses the student response(s) in question.This process continues until such time as agreement is reached. Teachers rev iew their assessment of all student responses based on the outcome of the above procedure. A record is kept of all moderation undertaken. The meshing of the English Integrated and English Extended scores occurs at the end of each semester when all student responses to all tasks have been assessed and moderated. This process results in a combined Tertiary English rank order and is carried out by the English Coordinator. There is no meshing of scores in Accredited English or between Tertiary and Accredited English courses. Grade descriptorsPlease see the attached table which has been extracted from the BSSS English Framework document. Penalties Penalties will be applied for cheating, plagiarism and late and non submission of assessment tasks. Students must meet the attendance and assessment requirements in order to be credited with the unit of study. Method of Unit Score Calculation Daramalan College is required to follow the procedures set down by the ACT Board of Senior Secondary St udies for the calculation of unit scores. These procedures are to ensure that unit scores are comparable from unit to unit throughout the course and across courses/subjects.For the first unit of Year 11 the mean and standard deviation of unit scores for each course/subject are to be derived from historic parameters. In subsequent semesters the unit scores for the course/subject group are to be backscaled to the previous semester. How are the unit scores calculated? 1. The parameters (mean and standard deviation) for each unit are set by the Director of Curriculum in accordance with ACTBSSS policy. The parameters are not necessarily the same for each course. 2. During the semester, students are given marks for assessment items.The weightings for these assessment items are detailed on the unit outline which students are given for each unit they are studying. 3. The raw scores for each assessment task are standardised to produce a z-score for each assessment task. This procedure is don e so that there can be comparability between the scores. 4. The z-scores are then added using the appropriate weightings to give an overall z-score for the unit. 5. The overall z-score is then standardised or back scaled to the given mean and standard deviation for that unit. This score is the final unit score.Z Scores The z-score shows how many standard deviations the student is above or below the mean. For example, a z-score of 1. 0 indicates that the student has achieved a result that is one standard deviation above the mean. Two of the most important pieces of information for a student are the rank and z-score that they achieve in subject each semester as they give an indication of where the student stands in relation to other students. COURSE SCORES At the end of Year 12, students are awarded a Raw Course Score for each T Course completed.These scores indicate the relative ranking of students within a Scaling Group and are not designed to show a level of achievement in a course . For all course types, (minor, major, major/minor, double major), Raw Course Scores are calculated using the 80% rule. That is, the top 80% of unit scores are used to calculate the Raw Course Scores. These calculations are done in the ACTBSSS database. Raw Course Scores are calculated in the following way: Minor Courses Raw Course Scores are calculated as follows: a) If two units have been completed, then the best 1. 6 units are used and averaged.For example, if the unit scores were 78 and 82, then the course score is calculated as follows: (82 + 78 x 0. 6) /1. 6 = 80. 5 b) If three units have been completed, the best 2. 4 units are used and averaged. For example, if the unit scores were 75, 83 and 85, then the course score is calculated as follows: (85 + 83 +75 x 0. 4) /2. 4 =82. 5 Major Courses Raw Course Scores are calculated as follows: a) If four units have been completed, the best 3. 2 units are used and averaged. For example, if the unit scores were 81, 75, 57 and 72, then t he course score is calculated as follows: (81 + 75 +72 +57 x 0. 2) /3. 2 =74. b) If five units have been completed, the best 4. 0 units are used and averaged. For example, if the unit scores were 82, 90, 60, 75 and 65, then the course score is calculated as follows: (90 + 82 +75 +65) /4. 0 =78 Major Minor Courses and Double Major Courses The same procedures are used for these courses. The best 4. 8 units are used for major/minor courses and the best 6. 4 units for double major courses. Note: When a student completes more than the minimum requirements for a course, a Raw Course Score is calculated when the minimum requirements have been met and when the student has completed their studies.The higher of the two values is recorded as the Raw Course Score. Raw Course Scores are then scaled by the ACTBSSS by a method called Other Course Score (OCS) scaling. This produces a Scaled Course Score for each T Course completed. Scaled Course Scores are reported on the Tertiary Entrance Statemen t. They are not reported on the ACT Year 12 Certificate. The best 3. 6 Scaled Course Scores are then used to calculate the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ATAR. For further details about the procedures used to generate course scores and the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank, refer to the article Ã¢â¬Å"Whats the ATAR? (ACT Board of Senior Secondary Studies). Students must keep a copy of all assignments submitted, together with drafts and preparation notes, all marked work and your notes for oral presentations. This material must be retained until unit results are released. All work submitted (with the exception of in-class tasks and exams) must have a Statement of Authorship attached. Year 12 students must submit 2 copies of assignments done at home as their work is being collected for Moderation in Semester 2 2012. The last day for the submission of assessment items is 13 November, 2013, 3. 30pm.The declaration below is to be signed and returned to your English teacher. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. STUDENT DECLARATION: I Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. have read the relevant policies and procedures referred to above. (PRINT YOUR FULL NAME) I understand what my rights and responsibilities are for the completion of this unit. Signature: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Date: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. UNIT GRADE DESCRIPTORS for T COURSES Assessment criteria| Responding critically| Evaluation and synthesis of ideas| Imagination and originality| Use of language| Control of medium| A student who achieves an A grade typically| esponds to texts critically and with a high degree of insig ht justifies viewpoint through well-structured, logical argument and highly effective use of textual references| synthesises and evaluates material in a complex manner to construct a perceptive response| demonstrates a high degree of creativity andoriginality| communicates with asophisticated control oflanguage for a range ofpurposes and audiences| demonstrates a highlydeveloped control and use of the conventions of the medium| A student who achieves a B grade typically| responds to texts critically and with insight ustifies viewpoint through structured, logical argument and effective use of textual references| synthesises and evaluates material in an effective manner to construct a competent response| effectively demonstrates creativity and originality| communicates witheffective control oflanguage for a range ofpurposes and audiences| demonstrates an effective and consistent control and use of the conventions of the medium| A student who achieves a C grade typically| res ponds to texts critically and with some insight justifies viewpoint through structured argument and some use of textual references| ynthesises and evaluates material to construct a satisfactory response| demonstrates somecreativity and originality may present work that is derivative in nature| communicates withdeveloping control oflanguage for a range ofpurposes and audiences| demonstratesunderstanding of theconventions of the medium but applies theminconsistently| A student who achieves a D grade typically| responds to texts withoccasional insight shows some capacity to justify and supportviewpoint| synthesises and evaluates material in a limited manner to construct a response| demonstrates limitedcreativity and little in theway of originality ay present a literalinterpretation| communicates withinconsistent control oflanguage with limitedunderstanding of purposes and audiences| demonstrates a partialunderstanding of themedium and limited use of its conventions| A student who achieves an E grade typically| paraphrases or retells shows little capacity tojustify and supportviewpoint| constructs a simplistic or incomplete response| demonstrates anunderstanding of simpleand concrete ideas presents a literalinterpretation| communicates with limited control of language| demonstrates littleunderstanding of theconventions of the medium|
Monday, February 24, 2020
Online Article - Assignment Example HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s two factor theory suggests that there are specific factors that lead to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their work environment. These factors can motivate someone to stay in a job or look to find another one. Stress is a common process that many people go through on a daily basis. Often this happens as the result of everyday challenges that people get used to after some time. In some cases, when stress happens because of some physical trauma or from combat, the stress can become a condition known as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD can be something that a person deals with on a daily basis that effects their home life and they may suffer from it in their workplace. The three topics for this paper were chosen because they all have some factor that can be presented to managers in some way. Job satisfaction is very important today as people continue to seek new jobs and managers are looking to hire the best people in the job. Also, lea rning style can play a role in developing opportunities for people and can determine the types of jobs an individual decides to apply for on a regular basis. Knowing ones learning style and how they take in information can present more opportunity for moving forward in their life. Learning Styles (Auditory,Visual or Kinesthetic) [VAK] There are many learning styles but the VAK system pays particular attention to the auditory, visual or kinesthetic aspects of learning. This learning system has been used with a variety of different areas. The article chosen for this section is one written by Whiteley (2007) who chose to research the effects of the VAK system in online learning. This article suggested that there are a variety of ways to design online course, but that learning styles should be taken into account when they are designed. Students have different ways that they take in information and this should be take into consideration when assignments are created. The article explained that the VAK system was designed to help learners understand how to adapt their learning styles to online course, but that professors should plan their courses around learning styles. The article explains each aspect of the learning process and how professors can design specific course assignments to provide each student with the information in the course in their desired style. The article provides a thorough understanding of the VAK system and how it relates to other systems like NLP, and points out that when a student can engage their learning style, they experience less stress in the classroom. This article supports the topic of VAK and of stress in that it explains what professors can do for each type of learner. In management, the VAK system can also be taken into account when a manager is attempting to train workers in a certain topic. As an example, the trainer would have different activities that reinforce the learning such as handouts (visual), audiotapes or lecture (audi tory), hands on interactive programs or group work (kinesthetic). By providing a variety of ways to grasp the information, the trainer can be sure that all employees receive the information they need. Frederick HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Two-Factor Theory In exploring the literature about HerbergÃ¢â¬â¢s two factor theory, many of the articles were specific to different work factors or situation. Also, most
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Technology in humanity - Speech or Presentation Example Again this machine is very critical in elaborating evolutions in technology. As per the inventor and his partner outlines the machine does not rely on physics laws but definitely depict careful application of principles accompanying the contemporary propulsion of cars. This piece of machine depicts a real evolution in technology and furthermore, the machine inclines more on the new invention as compared to development of an existing technology. Mentioning on the free energy, it attracts more demand than attention amongst the population globally. Many people are very sensitive concerning electricity since in some cases it constitutes a larger percentage of the budget. Similarly, in industries many power bills constitute largest amount on the expenditure and this is consequentially transferred to the costs of products covered by the consumers. Up to this point now there is a glimpse on the revolution of technology in addition to new inventions and their role to the global economy. The technology selected for evaluation in this report is anticipated to cause an absolute change in electric power and the overall energy throughout the world (Sarmento, 2010). The electrical generator that can provide free electricity (the Machine) Invention and Development This machine has been developed for a span of six years by John Crispin, a businessman and Leu Briks, an electrician. The inventorsÃ¢â¬â¢ propositions about the machine have been endorsed by Steve Brasington who is an independent engineer. The machine is called s home generator because of its design, functionality and the most applicable place for its use. In this case the most critical feature in the name is Ã¢â¬Å"generatorÃ¢â¬ simply because it is capable of producing power. However, the magnetic electrical generator is more than the information outlined about it. Operation of the Magnetic Electrical Generator The generator is started from a battery ignition or through a manual kick. The generator utilizes a capacitor that is charged by the car battery. According to John, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s electrical power is produced through capacitors that are equally charged by the rotating turbines. Once the generator is kick- started it can run for years without stopping. After the capacity is charged, it uses the charge to propel the motor that in turn produces power. According to John and Leu, the generator is capable of producing 24 kilowatts in one day. In simple deduction, it implies that the generator has the capacity to produce one kilowatt per hour, power that is equally sufficient to sustain domestic operations effectively. Principle Involved in Running the Machine According to Steve Brasington, the machine utilizes principles applied in car generation today but in a unique way. John also describes the machineÃ¢â¬â¢s operation to be similar to the operation of the car engine and imperatively, the car engine can be replaced by the generator. When Steve Brasington had the opportunity to highlight more about the machine, he explained that the technology on which the machine utilizes is extremely complex and can only be understood as revolutionary. The home generator applies the principles of magnetic attraction and repulsion for its movement. The magnets attracts and repels alternatively on opposite sides causing a harmonize movement of the rotor and this induces electric power beyond the fields. The produced
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Leadership and Management in Healthcare Essay There is an increase in societal changes and demands in the nursing profession today. It is vital that nurses keep up to date with what is happening in their profession. This is attainable by becoming a member of professional organizations (American Nurses Association, 2014). The three major categories of nursing organizations include: national, state, and international. These professional nursing organizations have large memberships and maintain state and national links that help increase the knowledge of its members regarding current trends in legislation, employment, and clinical practices. The purpose of this paper is to discuss professional organization in the nursing industry, discuss how nurse leaders can use professional nursing organizations to maintain actions in the nursing and health care industry. Selected Professional Organization Nursing organizations keep nurses aware of the current trends and politics that impact the nursing profession. A fundamental part of the American Nurses Association, the Florida Nurses Association (FNA) is categorized within the state level that supports education, research, and assistance to nurses in need. FNA has been a great advocate for nurses from all areas of specialty (Florida Nurses Association, 2014). FNA is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"political watch dog for nurses and health careÃ¢â¬ and has an influential presence in Tallahassee. Its main goal is to protect the privileges and rights of nurses and make sure that the voice of nurses is heard at the capital (Dandurant, 2012). Current Political Issues The use of the titleÃ¢â¬Å"DoctorÃ¢â¬ among nurses with Doctorate Degree in Nursing Practice (DNP) is one current issue addressed through FNA. Such issue is one of the most tackled issues among the medical group who is campaigning against doctoral nurses to shun away from calling themselves as doctors. As stated by the medical group, DNPÃ¢â¬â¢s should give the public and their patients explanations regarding their status otherwise will face criminal charges as they are not medical doctors (Florida Nurses Association, 2014). The Florida Medical Association has brought this controversy to legislative level known as State Bill 612 sponsored by Senator Bill Galvano. FNA Lobbyists aim to repeal this bill and view this as a diversion to legislators in the Florida health care plans. Professional Organization and Political Action In advocating for nurses and nursing, it is vital that leaders stay up to date of the political issues. Nursing organizations lobby legislatures and U.S Congress regarding significant issues that impact nursing. Advocating for increased nurses in the Ã¢â¬Å"Patient Protection and Affordable ActÃ¢â¬ is a good example. It is essential that everyone is knowledgeable about health and politics (American Nurses Association, 2014). Education is beneficial and plays a vital role through this process. It can be done through newsletters, media campaigns, e-mails, telephone calls, internet, and publications. Maintaining Awareness of Political Action Staying current with the health care policy is important in protecting the nursing practice, its scope, as well as the domain which nurses work (Gallager, 2010). Hence, safety and quality, nursing care will be continuously improved. FNA keeps nurse leaders informed of legislative issues such as nursing shortage, staffing ratios, safety in the work environment, and patient advocacy. Through professional organizations and meetings, leaders will be cognizant of information as it relates to the state and national level of health care. It is critical to have a voice in nursing issues. In order to achieve it, one has to be active in the professional organizations, stay aware of all levels of policy development, and works in collaboration with various organizations in the interest of nursing. In order to help ensure that policy enhances good health care,Ã nurses need to play an active role in the development and modifications in health policy (Dandurant, 2012). Conclusion Joining a professional organization is vital in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s professional growth. Health care policies and laws impact not only the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ work environment but the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ and their safety as well. The core of health policies is safety and quality care. It is essential that nurse leaders are knowledgeable regarding policies as it relates to nursing for a successful lobbying for the profession References American Nurses Association. (2014). Member benefits. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org Dandurant, K., (2012). Nurses influence health policies. Seacoastonline. Retrieved from: http://www.Seacoastonline.com Florida Nurses Association (2014). About FNA. Retrieved from http://wwwwfloridanurses.org Gallager, R., (2010). Quality is not an irreconcilable difference. Nursing management,4(8).18-20.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Use of the Terms "Race" and "Ethnicity" in the Social Sciences Defining identity can be complex and therefore we have to investigate the factors involved that make us who we are and how we are seen by others, collectively or individually. Social scientists have to consider the key elements which shape identity, the importance of social structures and agency involved. The differences and/or similarities between us are the focus that categorise and label us in society. Knowing who we are is important for many reasons including, social rights, obtaining a passport, housing, health, employment, marriage, and over all, being able to ascertain who we are, and belong. The terms Ã¢â¬ËraceÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËethnicityÃ¢â¬â¢ are central features in the process of categorisation. Ã¢â¬ËRacialÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËEthnicÃ¢â¬â¢ identifications are produced as part of a social process, which is dynamic and changing. Therefore we know that identities are not static and terms such as Ã¢â¬ËraceÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËethnicityÃ¢â¬â¢ cannot cover the changing categories without being dynamic terms themselves. The use of quotation marks with these terms is adopted to emphasise that the terms are broad terms and aim to avoid discrimination or misrepresentation of groups under the umbrella term. Ã¢â¬ËRaceÃ¢â¬â¢ is commonly used by media and society to portray the physical differences between people, however, social scientists choose to show that the term does not refer to exact biological differences, is stereotypical, and the quotation marks emphasise the concept as ...
Monday, January 13, 2020
History records the rise and fall of different civilizations of various countries. It has been found that in different times, different civilizations reach the pinnacle of glory. But, due to various reasons, like ecological change, climatic disaster, natural calamities, foreign conquest, epidemic disease, fall-short of population etc. have brought about their decay. The following examples clearly show how, after the zenith of civilization, the downfall may come about. Indus Valley Civilization The explorerÃ¢â¬â¢s spade has unearthed the most fascinating remains of the extremely rich and flourishing civilization of the Indus valley. The long span of the Indus Valley civilization and its firmly Ã¢â¬â settled character lead to the perplexing question Ã¢â¬â what was the cause of its destruction? At the present state of our knowledge and till the Indus script is deciphered we are not in a position to know the actual reasons of the end of this great civilization. However, on the basis of the available data, some attempts may be made to find out the causes of the decay of this civilization. First of all, there are dependable evidences to prove that rainfall in Indus valley was somewhat ample and equable in the third millennium B. C. The Indus valley had a larger rainfall than what we see today and that the land was swampy and full of jungles as known from the figure of animals like rhinoceros, elephants engraved on the seals. In course of time, the volume of rainfall gradually decreased. With the loss of rainfall, land became arid and dry. The aridity of the land led to deterioration of the civilization. The underground salt was dragged to the surface by evaporation of moisture. The progressive drying-up of the land led to desert-condition. This is proved from the story of AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion in the 4rth C. B. C. when Alexander the Great was marching through the cheerless wastes of Makran, the desert condition of the area was far in advance (Thaper 55). Under the teeth of this inhospitable climate, the Indus civilization started to decay long before the foreigners invaded the towns. Secondly, the growing danger of flood might had been responsible for the evacuation of Mohenjodaro. With the gradual silting up of the bed of the Indus, the water-level rose high, specially in the rainy season. This led, sometimes, to flooding of the city. At least on three occasions devastating floods swept over the city. It is found from excavation that an embankment 43ft. wide had to be rebuilt 14ft. higher up in order to protect the Mohenjodaro Citadel from the encroaching water-level of the river. Houses were built up on piled-up debrieses or on raised foundations in order to avert the danger of flood. The extensive use of the burnt-brick instead of sun-dried ones at Mohenjodaro equally testfies the danger of flood. Thirdly, human negligence was a contributory factor to the desiccation of Iands. Excessive flood of the Indus towns induced to burn bricks wood was used extensively as a fuel. The excessive deforestation caused by the felling of trees in order to burn bricks led to decline in the rainfall. It is a cardinal truth that lack of trees and forests decrease the rate of rainfall. The decline in rainfall dried up the crust of the earth and underground salinity came to the surface. Gradually deserts expanded and, resultantly, agriculture and human habitations were destroyed. The later phases of the civilization at Mohenjodaro presents a sad picture of this neglect and barrenness of the Indus civilization. In upper layers at Mohenjodaro, the dams meant to reserve the flood-water were not properly maintained. The agricultural standard also deteriorated. Fourthly, many scholars have pointed out that the Harrappans had a very iron-bound, conservative outlook about everything. They refused to learn from others any new thing or system. The civilization was cramped by its inherent barrenness and incapability to adjust itself to changing time and environment. With the march of time, the civilization lost its vitality and original creativity. It failed to survive in the midst of changing environment and changing society. Some scholars emphasize this negative aspect of Harrappan civilization as the fundamental cause of its decay and, in their view, all other causes were merely contributory. An inertia grew out of this conservatism which ruined the vitality of the civilization. This reflects the negligience of the Harappans to repair the dams. At Mohenjodaro among the seven layers, the upper layers of later period, we find growing slums, houses being created upon ruins of old houses, rooms being pertitioned into small cells for swarming lower grade population. Houses were encroaching upon the streets; lanes were chocked with klins. Old bricks were used for building new houses. Thus, there are reasons to believe that the internal decline and decay in the Harappan towns had set in long before the foreign invasion which completely swept away the Harappan culture. The internal decay started from the stagnation and barrenness of Hardpan culture and its failure to adjust with changing circumstances. With the internal decay was added natural calamities like floods, decrease in rainfalls and so on. According to some scholars, the city of Mohenjo-Daro was situated within a terrible earthquake-belt which might have frequently devastated the city. Again the earthquake theory has been challenged by others on the ground that if the people at Mohenjo-Daro could build their city upon seven layers, why they failed to built another layer upon the city destroyed by the earthquake? Moreover the earthquake theory is not applicable to all the towns of Harappa-culture (Nath 670). In any case, internal decline started from many reasons and the towns began to decay. This decline and incapability to adjust with the changing circumstances is evident in the failure of the Harappa people to learn from Samaria the art of cutting canals to irrigate the fields. This incapability led to the destruction of dams or reservoirs. This is how Mohenjo-Daro lost its importance when the Indus shifted its course. Ã¢â¬Å"The glorious culture was practically ruined in 1900 B. C. , long before the invasion of the AryansÃ¢â¬ (Majumder 201). Fifthly, whatever may be the domestic potential for the gradual decline of the Indus civilization, its ultimate extinction was most certainty due to invasion from without by a people who were probably the Aryans. The tragic end of the Indus civilization came about 1500 B. C. , the time the when the Aryans entered into the land of the seven Rivers. It is said that, the Aryans destroyed some metal forts and seasonal forts. Similar forts or citadel have been found at Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and other places. Hence, it is reasonable to infer that the Aryans were the destroyers of the Indus civilization. Certain circumstantial evidences are also available to justify the theory of Aryan invasion. Excavation have reveled that in the last stage of Mohenjo-Daro civilization, people were massacred in streets, houses and public places. Some of the victims were even women and children. Head and skull injuries found in the skeletons point to the use of sharp and heavy weapons by the invaders. The dead bodies were left uncared and exposed. (Paul 126) According to some historians, the downfall of the Indus Valley civilization came up due to some natural disasters like earthquake or flood. But most historians believed that the fall was actually caused by the Aryan invasion and the consequent cultural conquest. Fall of Roman Empire The city of Rome, founded in 753 B. C. was originally the most important commercial center situated on the Tiber, very near to place where it flows into the Mediterranean. But subsequently Rome grew into a political power and expanded the empire over a large part of Europe, the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in Asia Minor, and the northern coasts of Africa. In 330 A. D. , Emperor Constantine founded a second capital at Byzantium on the Black Sea, which came to be known as Constantinople after the name of its founder. Virtually, the vast Roman Empire was divided into two parts Ã¢â¬â Western and Eastern. In fifth century A. D. (476) the West Roman Empire was broken up by the invading barbarians but the Eastern Empire, also called the Byzantine Empire with Constantinople as its capital continued to exist about a thousand years more (1453). In the view of Prof. Henry Perrine the fall of the Roman Empire has caused a stir among the historians. According to the view of Penne the Roman Empire was essentially confined to the Mediterranean by the end of the 3rd century B. C. in fact the Roman Empire had to depend on the Mediterranean commerce for its political and economic interests. Perrine has put emphasis on the issue that the repeated German tribal invasions in the 5th century B. C. on the Western Roman Empire while converting them into German provinces could not destroy the unity of the Empire. The provinces of the Roman Empire were not Germanized. He is of the opinion that it is also a mistake to suppose that the intermittent German tribal invasions lead to the introduction of agrarian economy in the occupied zone of the Roman Empire. The Frankish system was, in fact, Romano-Byzantine. It is obvious that Perrine did not attach much importance to German invasions of the Roman Empire. His comment on the expansion of the Islam on the Mediterranean is more important as it produced far-reaching consequences. According to him, the Islamic invasion of the 7th century A. D. is something unique. The occupation of Syria, Tunisia and Spain by the Moslem invaders destroyed the Mediterranean unity and caused the final separation between the East and West. In this way two opponent civilizations came face to face with each other by the middle of the 7th century and this confrontation led to the inauguration of the middle ages in Europe. As it has been aptly pointed out, the Mediterranean, once a Roman Lake, henceforth was converted into a Muslim Lake. Secondly, in the view of R. H. C. Davis, when the Byzantine and Islamic empires were flourishing, the economy of the Latin West was stagnant. Davis has pointed out that Perrine has come to his conclusions from a consideration of the economy of the ancient world. The economy of the ancient world was dependent on the commercial navigation in the Mediterranean. Perrine is of opinion that so long this commercial navigation remained unmolested by the pirates, there was a regular flow of commerce and the population of Rome could be fed on African corn. If this normal commercial activity was disrupted then there would have been a total dislocation in this region. Davis has anticipated, following Perrine, the possible disturbing factors in the event of the inevitable decline of commerce in the Mediterranean. According to him, with the decline of commerce, the towns and cities face the same fate. The flourishing life of municipal towns became the matter of past. Naturally, the population gradually decreased. The agricultural wealth locked up within the country as there was no other outlet. The greater landlords built up their own workshops for making tools or weaving cloth and they paid their workers in kind. This possible state-affair has been described by Perrine as the Ã¢â¬Ëeconomy of no outletsÃ¢â¬â¢. According to Perrine, this character of the economy was vividly seen during the eighth and ninth centuries and this is attributed to the feudal society. The land was the only source of wealth. According to him feudalism was the outcome of this Ã¢â¬Ëeconomy of no outletsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Charlemagne was a child of it. It is the opinion of Perrine that free navigation of the Mediterranean might have been suspended but the more important problem is to determine the actual time of this suspension. He therefore, has tried to find out evidence of the use of such goods in the Frankish Kingdom as could be produced in eastern or southern shores of the Mediterranean. Although his findings have been disputed, yet these goods included gold, olive oil, (from North Africa), oriental silk, papyrus (from Egypt) and spices. According to him, these goods were very much in use in Gaul upto the last quarter of the 7th century and they all disappeared from the market by the first quarter of the eight century. Thirdly, the invasion of the Muslims is an important factor in disrupting the Mediterranean navigation. But at the beginning of the 8th century A. D. the Muslim captured Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia and Spain. The occupation of Tunisia was the most vital as later had a position of particular strategic importance. After its occupation the Muslims could disrupt the communications between the eastern and western halves of the Mediterranean. Trade also continued in Byzantium, but Pisa, Genoa and other ports of provinces were neglected. Perrine pointed out, that for its reason a great vacuum was created in the port of Marseilles. This eventually led to the decline of the cities of the southern Gaul and the Ã¢â¬Å"economy of no outletsÃ¢â¬ was imposed by the Muslims on the Latin West. Fourthly, in the ninth and tenth centuries the most important trading centers were secured. Thus instead of Milan, Florence, Pisa, towns like Pavia, Amalfi, Reims and Verdun flourished as they were relatively secured and farther from the coast. Venice was an exception and trade was at its low ebb in the Latin West during the ninth and tenth centuries. Fifthly, the religious intolerance also played its part. The spread of Christianity was another important factor contributing towards the fall of Rome. Rome had been known to be a nation of religious tolerance. But some Romans, mainly the Jews, did not accept Christianity. Naturally, there was a conflict between these two communities. Sixthly, although Jesus was crucified for his efforts to spread peace, the Romans were truly inspired by his words. Soon, the number of Roman involvement in the military and the participation in the community gradually declined. Resultantly, the Roman army was not increasing in numbers. At this juncture, the Barbarians of Germany, who formed an integral part of the Roman army, revolted against Rome and led disorganized attacks on several parts of Rome and even on the Roman army itself. Gradually, the Roman army became weakened and it was no longer a military super power in the world. Thus, it is crystal clear that the downfall of any civilization was never caused due to any single factor. Several factors accumulated and contributed together to the decay of these civilizations. Hence, it is amply clear that no civilization is permanent and ever lasting. As it rises at a particular time, similarly, it comes to an end at another historical juncture. Reference Majumder, R. C. Indus Civilization, The Vedic Age, Dakshinamurty Prakashan, Calcutta, p. 201-203 Nath, P. The Scripts on the Indus Seal, Modern Publications, New Delhi, p. 670-74 Paul, C. Causes of the Downfall, A History of Rome, Dey Publishers, New Delhi, p. 121-26 Sethy, S. Perrine Thesis, The Fall of Rome, World Press Pvt. Ltd. , Calcutta, 1981, p. 126-34 Thaper, R. History of India, vol. 1, ed. 3, 1987, p. 55-68 Wells, H. G. Wells, Barbarians Break Empire into East and West, A Short History of the World, Penguin Books, London, 1965, p. 152-61
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Table of contents List of tables and figures Figure1.the number of child abuse from 2009 to 2014 in Australia Figure2.the percentage of child abuse in different types Figure3. percentages of who experienced fear and/or anxiety emotional abuse by sex Abstract The issue of child abuse happen all over the world. Why are the case of child abuse increasing in recent years in Australia? This report aims to explain causes, effects and recommendations. 1 Introduction P3 2 background P4 3 causeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There are four types of child abuse including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. Especially, child abuse and neglect is one of the most misunderstood social problem in Australia. Until now, there are a range of cases still keeping silent. But the cases of child abuses tend to be increasing. Child emotional abuse and child neglect is damaging their emotional and physical development. It can have a huge impact on their process of being personality. https://www.google.com.au/search?q=type+of+child+abusesafe 2.Background Australian is often reported many cases of child abuse or domestic violence in recent years. It becomes a serious issue and attract peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. In fact, it happen very